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Mantenimiento básico de equipos de refrigeración

equipos de refrigeración

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Mantener las condiciones adecuadas de ambiente y temperatura en ciertos aparatos, instalaciones o espacios es fundamental en la industria para mantener y preservar la calidad y propiedades de ciertos productos, sobre todo aquellos que son perecederos. Debido a esto, en la actualidad los refrigeradores, congeladores, frigoríficos, cuartos fríos, difusores y demás equipos de refrigeración tienen una enorme importancia para muchas empresas.

Sin embargo, es necesario que los empresarios y usuarios de este tipo de máquinas y aparatos entiendan que se trata de sistemas que requieren mantenimiento regular para tener un funcionamiento constante, normal y adecuado y así también alargar al máximo el tiempo de vida útil de estos sistemas.

Un dato que refleja la importancia de verificar, revisar y estar en constante vigilancia de un sistema de enfriamiento industrial, así como darle mantenimiento, es el hecho que, estadísticamente, la falta de atención, cuidado y mantenimiento de este tipo de equipos y artefactos es la principal causa de presencia de fallas, errores o descomposturas en estos sistemas.

Asimismo, es importante señalar que realizar una inversión en vigilancia, cuidados y mantenimiento a este tipo de herramientas es mucho más factible, productivo y ventajoso que no hacerlo, y al mismo tiempo es mucho menos costoso. Revisión y mantenimiento frecuente garantizará que las instalaciones, máquinas y aparatos rindan más y evitará que se generen gastos y costos extra y bastante elevados por la reparación o reemplazo de algún sistema de enfriamiento.

El mantenimiento preventivo de las instalaciones y herramientas puede parecer una tarea protocolaria y de poca trascendencia, pero la verdad es que al llevarse a cabo de manera periódica y constante con base en un plan bien diseñado de revisión y control de calidad y operación de los sistemas es posible evitar cualquier tipo de falla o mal funcionamiento, reducir los riesgos y mantener un nivel de calidad óptimo en los procesos de producción de la empresa.

Cualquier tipo de proceso para dar mantenimiento preventivo a los equipos de refrigeración se realiza con el objetivo primario de evitar o reducir las probabilidades de fallas, pero para poder obtener un análisis adecuado y determinar que los sistemas de enfriamiento estén en las mejores condiciones es altamente recomendable llevar a cabo la revisión de una serie de elementos que son considerados los más importantes en este tipo de aparatos y sistemas.

El primer elemento a verificar es el nivel de aceite del compresor. Este aspecto es muy similar al de otro tipo de máquinas como los automóviles, básicamente existe un nivel óptimo de aceite que se requiere para que los procesos de enfriamiento se lleven a cabo. En caso de que el nivel de aceite esté bajo, es necesario agregar más aceite para llegar al nivel adecuado y mantener en observación el equipo por unas cuantas horas para confirmar que la operación de este se ha normalizado. Otro elemento importante que también está relacionado con el aceite es la presión. Es igual de importante verificar el nivel de presión del aceite en el compresor y mantenerlo en el rango ideal para que el funcionamiento del aparato sea el adecuado.

Asimismo, es importante verificar que el compresor se encuentre en perfectas condiciones, sin cuarteaduras, roturas, fugas o golpes, todo esto para garantizar que está trabajando de manera normal. De la misma forma es importante que se verifique el estado de los filtros, tuberías y conductos de todo el sistema, que no presenten desperfectos, golpes o daño y que sean limpiados de manera periódica y reemplazados cuando el uso los haya desgastado.

En general, es importante, por supuesto, llevar a cabo un proceso de verificación del funcionamiento del sistema completo, para corroborar que esté trabajando de manera adecuada, sin interrupciones ni fallas. Para esto es recomendable vigilar por lo menos 30 minutos de manera ininterrumpida las operaciones de los equipos de refrigeración.

Otros elementos importantes que se deben verificar es que exista un correcta lubricación de los componentes, que las flechas, poleas y aparejos, motores, ventiladores, indicadores y lectores funcionen de manera correcta, verificar que las bandas estén lo suficientemente tensas y bien alineadas y reemplazarlas cuando sea necesario, observar los manómetros y que estén en buenas condiciones, bien calibrados y precisos, verificar las lecturas de presión, purgar el aire de gases indeseados, verificar que funcionen correctamente las espreas y sistemas de succión, entre otros.

Desde luego, la condición y limpieza del agua utilizada es también un elemento importante a verificar. Al analizar este factor es posible detectar algas, gérmenes o impurezas en el agua y para purificarla es necesario llevar a cabo un proceso de tratamiento de esta. También debe verificarse la limpieza y correcto accionar de bombas de agua, tanques, tuberías y sistema de desagüe. Verificar la condición en que se encuentran los contactos eléctricos en todo el sistema es uno de los procedimientos básicos e imprescindibles para conservar los estándares de seguridad y funcionamiento adecuados.

Además del análisis que implica la observación y evaluación de todos los elementos mencionados, es importante tomar en cuenta que una vez que se haya instalado un equipo o sistema de enfriamiento no debe detenerse su proceso de operación durante un lapso considerable, sobre todo mientras cuente con presión completa de refrigerante en sus líneas y conductos, ya que esto podría provocar una pérdida de carga del compresor.

Es recomendable que el personal responsable del mantenimiento de los sistemas de enfriamiento desarrolle programas, protocolos o métodos de revisión que contemplen todas las estaciones de refrigeración, sistemas de iluminación y fuentes de energía relacionadas con el sistema para un mejor análisis.

Finalmente, es altamente recomendable que se solicite apoyo o ayuda de expertos en el uso, instalación y mantenimiento de equipos de refrigeración, pues de esta manera se podrá tener un mejor análisis, programa de mantenimiento y, en general, un mejor sistema de enfriamiento que cumpla con los objetivos y satisfaga las necesidades de la empresa. Y la mejor opción para esto es indudablemente Unifrio.

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